MKII 5 Watt 3d printable Wind Turbine

MKII 5 Watt 3d printable Wind Turbine with passive variable pitch mechanism. All Printable parts can be printed without the use of supports minimising post processing.


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Attribution Before the Flood - the aim is to reduce my carbon footprint 1 Renewable Watt at a time whilst giving others the same opportunity without the burden of the design, testing, manufacture and optimisation of this complex Turbine.


Please see MKI for printed part pictures and assembly animations.

The MkII has three design improvements, the first is an all important tail fin to allow the turbine to turn into the wind and extract the maximum wind energy in changeable conditions, the second is a stiffer tower structure with bigger bearings and increased diameter locating pin to support the increased loads from the tail whilst allowing for the third improvement which is the inclusion of Split Ring Electronics. The Split Ring Electronics allows the turbine to spin around the tower axis without any limitations it brings the power electronics into the tower where there is more space and its easier to access.

The MkII requires the following new parts:
• Structure
• Rear Structure
• Tower Header
• Nacelle

This fully functional wind turbine has been specifically design to be manufactured, assembled and operated at home with its unique 3d printable design. The wind turbine is optimized to produce a power output of 5 Watt (12volt ~0.4amps) at 5m/s wind speeds, perfect for battery charging applications.
The wind turbine has been designed with a unique Passive Variable Pitch (PVP) design. The PVP maintains an optimum power output through control of the turbines rotational speed. Whilst optimizing power output the PVP also protects the Turbine from dangerous over speed conditions, limiting its maximum revolutions per minute in wind speeds greater than 5m/s.
The main components of the turbine have been designed for Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) methods using PLA plastic. 95% of the ALM components require no post processing as these parts do not require ‘print supports’ reducing material usage whilst improving the overall finish of the part.

Materials and methods

Contact me if you require a printing service.

Materials, Speeds and Feeds, Temperatures, Infill and layer settings are listed in the Instruction Manual. The assembly has been specifically design for these settings, printing outside of these setting may affect the fit, form and function of the turbine.


  • Placeholder
    Tower Footer
    SLDPRT  –  88 kb
  • Placeholder
    Tower Header
    SLDPRT  –  86 kb
  • Placeholder
    Wind Turbine Mk Ii Instruction Manual
    PDF  –  3.6 mb
  • Placeholder
    X Stl Easy Print Tail Fin
    ZIP  –  440 kb
  • Placeholder
    X Stl Files
    ZIP  –  14 mb
  • Placeholder
    X Stl Setting Spacer
    ZIP  –  15 kb
24119fe0c5cd97891487b906cef40779?default=blank&size=40Idem added this to the Prusa i3 collection ago
Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

I added a 74 tooth GT2 pulley.

The 75 tooth pulley was a little bit to tight and was causing to much friction.

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

If anyone would like parts printing i'd be happy to help here:

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Hello Andreas, i’ve just measured the nut at 7.95mm with digital callipers. Perhaps you could do a general upscale of the part in cura by 1.0-1.5%? Thanks Dan

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1424c5f5207fa1da16f4c96b009efd70?default=blank&size=40akuechler commented ago

Hey Dan,

could you check the dimensions of the M5 nuts you planned for inside the blades? Maybe the bunch you got simply have slightly different dimensions than the one I get here in Germany (should not be but hey ...) When I measure them they are between 7.9mm and 7.92mm wide.

regards Andreas

Mini img 0338Sepio printed this ago
Carousel thumb img 0031
Printed on:
Ultimaker 2+ Extended
I have changed the gears to a GT2 belt and pulleys to reduce the gear noise. More info is available here:
6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

Definitely give it a shot. I tend to go big on projects and only printed PLA the first day I owned my printer; now it's all the exotics and "tough to print" materials.

It's tough to get the Garcad bed to stay flat for printing. I found some extremely high temp HVAC aluminum tape. It holds to 176C. I use it to create a full perimeter hold down to the heated surface. This tape is good for 3 or 4 prints before the adhesive starts to break down.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Sounds good greg not used that material before but will look into it. I too use the gears on mine, I found a small wrap of PTFE tape on the Stepper shaft takes out any concentricity issue when you tighten down the grub screw.

6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

Change of plans. Don't think I'll bother printing the cogs to attempt the belt drive. Printed the standard gearset in Acetal and they are butter smooth and very quiet.

Settings are very different from the PLA gear set. These are printed at 265c on a 130c Garcad bed. 0.6 nozzle, .150 layer height, 35% infill. Incredibly strong.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Hi Sepio, my original design intent was 3:1 and this was easily achieved with the belts but the cogs just take up to much room and 2:1 was the best I can do in the space I had. I'd test the highest ratio possible, the higher ratio may mean you can run the turbine slower by trimming the PVP (adding more weights) and maintain Power output.

Interested to know how you get on! Biggest problem I had with the pulleys was printing the sharp edges on the teeth profile, I spent an age on it and in the end opted for the cogs.

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi Daniël,

I have received the GT2 timing belts and pulleys. And I'am going to print some different sized main shaft pulleys to test the best pulley and belt combination.

You said "The top pulley is 20 teeth, the bottom is 60 teeth and the belt is 158. This will maintain the 3:1 gear ratio." But if check the gears they have 48 and 24 teeth. This is a 2:1 gear ratio.

What is the correct ratio? I have 4 different aluminum top pulleys with 16, 20, 28 and 40 teeth for the stepper motor shaft and I want to stay as close as possible to the optimal gear ratio.

6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

Yes, I tried timing it so many ways. Tried tweezers and pliers (my hands shake a good bit) but could not get it installed. Neither warming or cooling the nut seemed to make any difference either. Now I can print them back to back no issue.

I did miss the timing badly at one point and spent a good bit of time clearing a clogged nozzle.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@Greg, I wonder if it was an issue with timing, did you try and install the nut the instant the print head moved away from the part? I was stood next to mine nut in hand and had it installed and printing again in 5 seconds flat :) just thought it might have cooled and shrank a little?

Really good to hear your getting good feedback!


6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

My first prototyping prints were with PLA and had the same issue. The gears and blades were held for last as I couldn't get the nut installed. I switched to ABS after sorting out the printing differences on the other parts; infill is much less. Thought it might be an issue on my end. The tiniest increase in volume for the M5 was all it needed; nuts slides in with a small amount of pressure. Before, PLA or ABS, I was pressing so hard the bed was deflecting and getting nowhere.

This turbine is pretty amazing so far. Everyone that walks into my office is really impressed.

I'm attempting 3 versions of the gears this weekend; the standard gears adjusted to print in Acetal, modified herringbone gears in Acetal and the belt driven version as well.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Guys, the turbine was design for the fits and gaps of PLA shrinkage and not ABS, i've printed 11 blades throughout the process without any issue with the nut. If you let me know what size across flats you need for ABS shrinkage (haven't printed with ABS yet..) I can adjust the solid model and provide a STL model specifically for ABS?

Let me know, cheers Dan

6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

I made another adjustment to the crank and pitch arm. Instead of risers, I printed the pitch arm flat in XT-CF20. The hole connecting to the crank is tapped to M2.5. The hole at the piston is tapped to M3. I used nylon washers in place of the risers on the pitch arm. The assembly is butter smooth now. I'll post those parts after a final refinement.

6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

@akuechler The pins are used solely for alignment. Two were used to make sure the blade can't rotate independently of the hub. Each part was printed with 3 top and 3 bottom solid layers. The solid surface brushed with an acetone/abs mixture seems to hold just fine.

On the M5 nuts, I tried several different infills, overlaps and even under-extruding before I realized that it's just too small.

1424c5f5207fa1da16f4c96b009efd70?default=blank&size=40akuechler commented ago

@Greg - I second your problems with the m5 nuts. They holes for the nuts with my prints (ABS, .4 nozzle) came out 7.6mm while m5 is defined with 8mm sides. Do your steel pins hold the torq of the rotating blades? Have you glued them in some way?

6be0a98a0dcb6c514fe957aa0f2c18bb?default=blank&size=40Greg Whitmore commented ago

@Daniel I posted my "Easy Print Airfoil". The airfoil is split into a hub and outer blade. I used stainless steel pins for assembly. None of the M5 nuts I had in my inventory would fit into the volume of the original blade. I very slightly increased the volume and the nuts slide in without issue or gaps.

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Here are some pictures of the Slip ring install.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

All, find link to optional Pulley and Belt drive for reduced noise!

I've included the solid works models so you can modify to improve the fit if required.

Cheers Dan

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Here is the MkII with GT2 Belt driven parts in place. The top pulley is 20 teeth, the bottom is 60 teeth and the belt is 158. This will maintain the 3:1 gear ratio.

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@ Sepio, I was toying with the idea of making some monster blades 50% bigger! I think the biggest issue would be as you increase the blade height you need more chord and with more chord at max pitching the blade would likely hit the tower and would need either a longer shaft or a spacer between the disc and shaft! As i broke 2 blades I might as well print some bigger ones :)

Let me dig the GT2 stuff out now... its on a backup hard drive...

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

@Dan, did you also test longer rotor blades?

Does this result in better power output in lower wind speed conditions?

Or does this also change the way the PVP works?

I like the AVP design. You should make an airplane or a (overdesigned) room ventilator (or ceiling fan) by powering the stepper motors. ;-)

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi Dan,

I'am planning to use an aluminum top pulley and a printed shaft pully. I found this customizable (scad) design for the pulley.

What where the number of teeth on your pulleys and what was the belt length?


Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

PS if your wondering what the hell is in the picture :)) its an Active Variable Pitch (AVP) variant that uses a raspberry Pi Zero to measure the shaft speed and then uses an NEMA11 to actively control the pitch of the blades to a given formula I wrote. With the Pi I was able to remote log in to the turbine to monitor its performance and also tweak any settings on the fly. Effectively this was the test machine that lead to the PVP design shared here.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis printed this ago
Carousel thumb img 0201
Printed on:
ultimaker 2
@Sepio, I tried to use a GT2 pulley drive as you can see in this picture... It was ok, the problem I had was getting the teeth to print with enough definition to grip the belt properly and the teeth spacing was a pain. Once installed it was quieter though! I will fine tune and make the parts available soon. Cheers Dan
Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@AKuechler. Seems like you solved your issue but for others... I added a file called easy print tail, I split the tail into 3 easy to print pieces you should defently try that and use a high brim number on the aerofoil sections.

Hope this helps!


Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi Dan,

To reduce the gear noise I have ordered some GT2 pulleys for the nema shaft and timing belts. I have already printed a large pulley for the rotor shaft. If I know which combination of nema pulleys , belt length and shaft pulleys works then I will share the information.

I have also removed the voltage regulator from the electrical part inside the nacelle. I am going to put a step up down (boost buck) convertor on the bottom of the pole. I would like to get an output voltage of 5 volt so I will be able to charge an external battery pack.

1424c5f5207fa1da16f4c96b009efd70?default=blank&size=40akuechler commented ago

Tx - found it. So builders keep your hands off the 51mm version of the nema

11 stepper for this design ...

2016-12-31 8:38 GMT+01:00 YouMagine - Supercomputer <>:

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

I used the following slip ring

I bundled 3 wires for the positive side and 3 for the negative side.

I tested it with a bench power supply and a 1.5 amp test load. This included 3 meter of speaker wire which goes through the pole.

On the input side: 12.003 Volt, 1.514 Amp

On the output side: 11,421 Volt, 1.4996 Amp

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi AKuechler,

I used the following 32mm nema 11 motor.

1424c5f5207fa1da16f4c96b009efd70?default=blank&size=40akuechler commented ago

Hi Daniel,

tx for the great design. Which brand of nema 11 you are using? I found JK28HS51-0674 but the length is specified with 51mm and this would obviously not fit the casing.

@Greg - you made my day. I had a bunch of failed prints with this tail fin and the one that finally worked is ways off the quality possible with your design. Thanks very much!

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@ Greg Whitmore, Hi Greg I think you should take credit for the work you have done, you could post some pictures of the modifications you have made and post a link to your design for others to download? I look forward to seeing what you have done! Thanks Dan

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@ Sepio, NICE! that really gets some speed up. Its cool you have your other turbine in the back ground interesting to see the speed differences between the two styles. Might have to make some helical gears to reduce the meshing noise...

I put mine up yesterday (UK in being battered by a storm) I thought it would be a good test of the safety mechanism in the PVP, unfortunately I didn't secure the pole enough and it fell over and broke two of the blades :( gutted.

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

A video of my running turbine is available here:

(the wind was very turbulent)

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@ Roman Dan, Hello the turbines design output is 12volt x 0.4 amp is approx 5Watt.

Cheers Dan

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@ Sepio the Turbine with modifications looks mint good job and I really like the clear pole. I've moved into my new house now and can get back to outdoor testing!

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5720d2a5e5fd028ef2b57b9774c2b444?default=blank&size=40Roman Dan commented ago

12V at 4 amps doesn't make 48W?

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

All my build photo's are available on my Google Drive.

There is a folder "Fusion 360 Custom Parts" with the parts I designed. The Fusion 360 export files are inside the zips.

Mini img 0338Sepio printed this ago
Carousel thumb img 1167
Printed on:
Ultimaker 2+ Extended
Mini img 0338Sepio printed this ago
Carousel thumb img 1166
Printed on:
Ultimaker 2+ Extended
Mini img 0338Sepio printed this ago
Carousel thumb img 1164
Printed on:
Ultimaker 2+ Extended
The MKII with my custom tower header for a 50mm pipe.
Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

My build is finished. Now I have to wait for a windy day.

I used a 50mm pipe and designed some custom parts.

I also created a bearing cover to prevent the electronics inside the structure assembly from touching the shaft nut. you can just press fit this over the bearing.

The Nema 11 Cog was to big. I printed this a 95% and used a 5mm drill to make the hole a litte bit bigger. Now both cogs are turning without to much friction.

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Hello Joanne, Item 7 the blade x3 includes the nuts (their not called out separately, the nut is also called out on the blade drawing. M4 nuts/bolts won't work without modification to Rotor Assy Item2 the part needs to be an interference fit with Item 13.

3229240fec671b6740abb62ae7ba6d7d?default=blank&size=40Joanne Hughes 🎮 commented ago

Hmmm on the list of parts for the Rotor Assy it lists 3 M5 40mm bolts, but only 1 M5 nut. I put M4 nuts in my blades.... looks like I'm gonna have to get me some M4 40mm bolts!!

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

@Sepio, I'm happy all your prints have have gone well they look great you have done a really good job! It's official you're the 2nd person on the planet to own one (almost) :))

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

I printed al parts. I have to wait for the bearings before I can start the final assembly.

Below a link to the photo's of the all the parts.

All parts did print perfectly.

I only need to change the tower header. I my country (the Netherlands) I can't find a pipe with the same inside diameter. I bought a pipe with 70mm outside and 67mm inside diameter (1.5mm wall thicknesses).

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Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago


The Tower Assembly Item 7-O-ring seal can be replaced by printed 'Tower Setting spacer'.


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F52955a43f6866dfa70eb17052282edf?default=blank&size=40cdonc commented ago

@daniel davis

Thank you for the extra information regarding the parts! Planning to start printing some of the parts this weekend. The design looks really good. The idea with asking the students to try to optimize the blades seems very interesting. I must think on how to integrate the different parts and function in my sessions :)


Thank you for the direct links, I have ordered the parts now. I will try to start printing the first parts soon.

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago


I replaced the F689 (9x17x4) with F689-2RS (9x17x5 mm). The last one is more commonly available (on Ebay) and a lot less expensive. You will need 6 of them. "F689-2RS (9x17x5 mm) Flange Rubber Sealed Ball Bearing",

For the main location bearing and shaft bearing I bought the F6805ZZ Metal Shielded Flanged Bearings. You wil need 4 of them. "Flange Thin-wall Ball Bearing F6805ZZ Metal Shielded Flanged Bearings",

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi Dan,

Thank you for the new tail design. I am going to print it in a few days. I just started the tower shaft print.


Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

All (For Sepio specifically)

I've uploaded a set of STL files called 'Easy Print Tail Fin' i've split the tail fin into three parts and made the base bigger for better bed adhesion. With the easy print tail you are more likely to get a successful print first time. Note I strongly recommend a 30-Brim with the two aerofoil sections for best results. Fixings are M4 Self tapping screws however the push fit should be tight enough on its own or with a little glue.

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

cdonc, I was just thinking about what you said about using it in schools...

You could get your students to design their own blades for the turbine and see if they can improve the performance relative to my design. You could back to back test the turbine in controlled conditions using a Fan and measure the power output of the different designs to see which is best. I created an aero spreadsheet that allowed me to alter key parameters of the blade, NACA spec Chord/Thickness/Chamber etc and import into solidworks to be tested in flow works.

Just thinking out loud, depends the age group you work with I guess?


Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago


I purchased the bearings from RS components others have found them cheaper on Ebay. Both sets of location bearings are the same F68052RS and are sealed and flanged. The setting spacer/seal between the tower and the structure is 25mm Diameter with a thickness of 1.5-2mm, the thickness of this seal will be trial and error as its important the fit between the Tower Header and Structure is snug to prevent the excessive bending of the tower shaft. You could print some setting spacers of different thickness to perfectly fit your turbine and remove the ring all together...

Ahhh the grub screw was on the MkI BoM list but not the MkII BoM list, odd but its an M3 Grub.

Worth Nothing that Rotor Item 14 and Wind Turbine Assembly Item 6 are actual M4 Self Tapping screws not M3 as pointed out by Sepio.

Thanks Dan

F52955a43f6866dfa70eb17052282edf?default=blank&size=40cdonc commented ago

Great design, and very educational!

Planning to print this to use in my class, but I have some questions.


There are some errors with the link provided for the bearings. Is it correct that both type of bearings should have a flange?


Also, can you provide information on the tower location bearings? You mention three types of different bearings in the BOM but only two of them are specified in details.

Tower Location Bearing:?

Main location bearing: F68052RS

Pitch bearing: F689


Tower O-Ring Setting

& Seal size and dimensions?


Grub screw dimensions?

Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis commented ago

Hi Sepio,

The STL imports into Cura a little odd however if you rotate the tail on the green axis/orbit by 120 degrees it will sit on the base with no overhangs (maximum unsupported angle is 30 degrees). When the tail is on the build plate it should be in the same orientation as on the installed turbine, I.e as a 'V' with the V spanning from corner to corner of the build plate.

I've never had an issue with bed adhesion to be honest even with the smallest of bases, perhaps a Brim with a large number of lines might help? Could even use a raft or design in some custom supports?

Cheers Dan

Mini img 0338Sepio commented ago

Hi Daniel,

You are very fast. Thank you for the new designs.

How did you print the tail. There is no flat part. I managed to tilt it 1 degree but there is always a place on the model that is not supported. I can use support but with the small contact area I don't think it wil stick to the build plate.


Mini youtube channel logo 2Daniel Davis published this design ago